Destination information England

History

England was settled by humans for at least 500.000 years now. The first modern humans arrived during the ice age. Approximately 35.000 to 10.000 years ago. Back then, the sea levels were lower and Britain was connected to the European mainland. These people were the ones who had built the ever so famous and ancient megalithic monuments of Stonehenge and Avebury. 

Between 1500 and 500 BCE, Celtic tribes migrated from Central Europe and France to Britain and mixed with the indigenous inhabitants, creating a new culture that was slightly distinct from the Continental Celtic one. This was the Bronze age. 

The Romans tried a first time to invade ‘Britannia’ ( this is the Latin name for the country ) in 55 BCE led by Julius Ceasar, but weren’t successful until 43 CE, during the reign of Emperor Claudius. In 122 CE, Emperor Hadrian built a wall in the north of Britannia to keep the barbarian Pics at bay. 

The Romans controlled most of present-day England and Wales, and founded a large number of cities that still exist today. London, York, St. Albans, Bath, Exeter, Lincoln, Leicester, Worcester, Gloucester, Chichester, Winchester, Colchester, Manchester, Chester, Lancaster were all Roman towns, as in fact were all the cities with names now ending in – Chester-, - Cester – or - Caster -, which derive from Latin castrum (fortification). 

The former capital of England was Winchester until replaced by London in 1066. Today London is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. 

The country

England is known for its beautiful nature, picturesque villages, big cities and the Royal family. 

The Irish Sea lies North West of England, whilst the Celtic Sea lies to the South West of England. The North Sea is on the East and the English Channel lies to the South separating it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the Central and Southern part of the island of Great Britain. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.England ( the part of Great Britain of course ) is only 35 km from the European mainland. 

Some explanation about why England, Great Britain and United Kingdom are ‘terms used in the wrong way’. United Kingdom refers to the union of what were once four separate countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Most of Ireland is independent now. Northern Ireland is still part of the United Kingdom. UK’s real name is; United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 

Great Britain comprises only England, Scotland and Wales. England is de Southern Part of the country. London is in England and in Great Britain and in the UK of course. Are you confused already?

  • Destination information England

The country

The English are said to be quite reserved in manners, dress and speech. They are famous for their politeness, self-discipline and especially for their sense of humour. Basic politeness (please, thank you, excuse me ) is really expected. Keep that in mind during your internship!

You may also be called by many different ‘affectionate’ names, according to which part of England you visit. Do not be offended for it is quite normal. You may be called dear, love, chuck, mate, son, chick, ma’am, me duckie and so on, according to the age, sex and the location English people will always find a cute way to name you. British people place considerable value on punctuality. English people are very time conscious and the pace of life may seem very rushed because of this. In Britain people make great effort to be on time. It is often considered impolite to arrive even a few minutes late. 

The climate

Weathermen who predict the weather in the UK have a hard job, since it is never really clear what the weather will be like from one day to the other. It can really be sunny one day and rainy the next. In general, England has warm summers and cool winters. Though the summers are a bit cooler than in other countries, the winters are quite mild with temperatures almost never going below 0ºC. July and August are usually the warmest months of the year. Temperatures can rise up to 32ºC, but not higher than that. 

We all know that it rains a lot in the UK. Though London is surprisingly dry compared to the rest of the UK. It is especially the Northern part of Ireland and Scotland that has a lot of rain and low temperatures. Did you know that London receives only 650 mm of rain per year? This is less than Rome, Sydney or New York City. So really, it isn’t that bad after all. 

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